Chapter 1: WILLIAM BALCOMBE – A Man of mystery
William Balcombe, first Colonial Treasurer of New South Wales was a man of enigma, mystery and even controversy. A “bon vivant” who loved good food, good wine and horse-racing, he nevertheless was ready to stand, armed, alongside the Governor of St. Helena and face a mutiny of soldiers. Just who was this man?
He was reputed to be an illegitimate child of one of the Hanoverian princes, most likely the Prince of Wales, later Prince Regent and George IV.
He appears to have had the protection and patronage of Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt, Secretary to the Prince of Wales, an MP who became Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod.
He spent time as a midshipman in the Royal Navy.
He switched to ships of the Honourable East India Company fleet, joining as a 5th mate, rising through the ranks to Second Mate when he faced a Court Martial and was lucky to escape being sent to the gallows.
He became business partner to William Burchell, an educated young man, one of the “gentry” who subsequently became famous as a botanist and naturalist.
He set up business on the isolated South Atlantic island of St Helena.
He and his family were host to and friend of the exiled Napoleon Bonaparte.
He left St. Helena under a cloud of suspicion for supposedly helping Napoleon to keep in contact with friends and family.
He spent several years under social scrutiny in England before suddenly and unexpectedly being appointed as the first Colonial Treasurer of New South Wales.
He stored the Colony’s money under his bed, the only protection being a brass barrelled blunderbuss and a case of horse pistols beside his bed.
His relatively early death in the colony left the family needing to cover large debts and with an uncertain fate
However survive and thrive they did, and now William Balcombe has several generations of descendents who call Australia home.
These chapters assemble the many jigsaw pieces which constitute over one hundred and fifty years of the life and times of William Balcombe, his wife Jane, their daughters and their sons from 1777.
WHO WAS WILLIAM BALCOMBE?
There are many myths and legends of royal parentage perpetuated within the family of William Balcombe – he was rumoured to be the son of the Prince Regent.
Every family historian wants to find links to royalty – but was there any proof? Just who was William Balcombe?
Was William really the son of the George, Prince of Wales and future Prince Regent? Well if so, the lady involved was not named among the list of the many loves of the man who became George IV who would have been aged just 15 at the time of William’s conception. There was the possibility of a liaison with a member of the royal staff, the pretty wife of a groom or one of the Queen’s maids of honour. He is known to have had secret romantic assignations before becoming involved with Mary Hamilton, a ‘sub governess’ to his sisters  and the actress Mary Robinson (of Perdita fame) as well as Maria Fitzherbert. These known liaisons were all after the time of William’s birth and there is no mention of any illegitimate children of George as a teenager.
Anthony Camp, author of “Royal Mistresses and Bastards” advised:
I am not aware that the Prince had any involvement with anyone prior to his temporary infatuation with Mary Hamilton in April 1779. If he had fathered a child in 1777 that would almost certainly have come to the notice of his father and his contemporaries.
The Royal Archives of Windsor Castle reports that Balcombe is not one of the recognised illegitimate children fathered by George, Prince of Wales, the future Prince Regent, later George IV.  However family members recall a story that someone within the family had irrefutable proof of the George connection which they took and showed to the Royal Archives who agreed that yes, there certainly was proof and then promptly buried the evidence within the bowels of the archives, never to surface again.
George was reported to be very fond of women, he apparently collected ringlets or locks of hairs and also pubic hairs from each of his ‘conquests’, placed them into neatly labelled envelopes, supposedly collecting ‘enough to stuff a mattress’. It started as a bet with his cronies as to who could collect the most. On his death his executor, the Duke of Wellington had the envelopes discreetly burnt!  So it may well be possible that a child with a Royal sire was born but no claim against the Prince was made. We’ll probably never know.
As Prince of Wales, George was known to visit the south coast town of Brighton, (still called Brighthelmstone as late as 1775) His physicians had advocated sea bathing as a cure for the swollen glands in his throat (which led to him making fashionable those high starched neck cloths of the time). The waters of Brighton had a good reputation for curing a variety of illnesses, none more spectacular than the one shown in this newspaper report:
The waters of Brighton have to boast of as extraordinary a cure as any performed at Bath, Bristol or St Winifred’s Well. A lady of respectability came down there after trying everything in the materia medica to remove a confirmed dropsy. She went by the advice of a physician there into the warm sea bath and in a very little time was delivered of a fine child.
Balcombe descendant Dame Mabel Brookes claims William had an older brother and both boys were educated by the King’s Bounty as their father, Captain of a frigate, had been reputedly lost at sea with his ship. No evidence of them has been found or that any Balcombe was given payments on the compassionate list or a King’s Bounty (money given to widows or other relations of those slain in battle.) 
Another story was that the Balcombe boys were sons of the landlord of the New Ship Inn at Brighton who was killed in a boating accident involving the Prince on one of his many visits to the town. A yacht in which the Prince was a passenger had supposedly run down and drowned the boys’ father. So far no reports or evidence of this has been found.
The story lending most credibility to the Royal link was through the connection with Thomas Tyrwhitt who was at one time Private Secretary to the Prince of Wales.  William Balcombe certainly had important patronage throughout his career and Sir Thomas remained a friend to the Balcombe family over many years. One Balcombe son born on St Helena in 1810 was named after him. How did they meet?
Thomas Tyrwhitt Esq. became the Member of Parliament for Okehampton from 1796-1802 then Member for Portarlington from 1802-1806 before moving to become Member for Plymouth until 1812 when he was knighted on becoming Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, a position he held for twenty years. Till this appointment Tyrwhitt had reputedly always lived in the household of the Prince of Wales, for many years occupying apartments in Carlton House. This Parliamentary membership was after William Balcombe was close to adult age, so at what point did Sir Thomas become involved in the Balcombe’s life? It was most likely during the time he was Secretary to the Prince and his subsequent positions allowed him to remain a powerful ally for William Balcombe.
So perhaps there was a family connection to Brighton for the Balcombe boys or the possibility that they were connected in some way to Thomas Tyrwhitt himself.
We know Sir Thomas also attempted to help Balcombe by writing to Sir Hudson Lowe in December 1815 asking that an agreement was made with his young friend Balcombe, for the supply of Napoleon’s table  and Balcombe’s daughter Lucia Elizabeth (Betsy) Balcombe was married in May 1822 from the Tyrwhitt home in Devon with Sir Thomas acting as a witness. 
In 1960 Dame Mabel Brookes wrote in St Helena Story that William had an elder brother, a soldier, Colonel Stephen Balcombe who remained equerry to the Regent for many years and eventually retired as Inspector-General of Yeomanry and was buried in Swallowfield about 1847. She told the story in 1965 to some American dinner visitors who were possible distant Balcombe relatives. They reported the dinner conversation in a letter commenting that the family information was hazy, fragmentary and incomplete. No one had gathered the family dates of birth or death nor had they been written down on paper. However there is a Will listed for a Stephen Balcombe, gentleman of Saint James Clerkenwell, Middlesex, dated 7 September 1818. He mentions his mother was Mary Terry, formerly Balcombe, née Vandyke. The date contrasts with Dame Mabel’s story.
‘Our’ William Balcombe was aged 51 on his death in 1829 suggesting he was born about 1778. The International Genealogical Index [IGI]  lists just three William Balcombe births in a ten year time frame around this year and just one is of interest.
William Tomset Balcombe christened 28 Dec 1777 at Rottingdean, Sussex to a Stephen Balcombe and wife Mary. Stephen Balcombe had married Mary Vandyke on 27 May 1777 at Rottingdean, a village close to Brighton in Sussex.
We know ‘our’ William sailed with the Honourable East India Company. There is a William Tompsitt Balcombe in the records of the HEIC. This lists the date for William’s birthday as 25 December 1777 and Rottingdean as his place of birth. In those days most people were illiterate and the words ‘Tomset’ and ‘Tompsitt’ would both sound the same when spoken. There was also a brother Thomas baptised on 19 October 1783, but he sadly died and was buried 28 August 1784. In addition there was another younger brother Stephen born just two years after William, being christened 21 May 1780. Subsequently there is a record of a Stephen Balcombe marriage to Ann Saich on 7 Dec 1810 in the same church as William married, St Marylebone in London.
The Brighton trade directories  named John Baulcombe [sic] as running the New Ship Inn in 1794; it was the original coach office and opposite the Old Ship Inn in Ship Street. It was reported by Bishop that John won a sixteenth share of £20,000 in a lottery in October 1805 and it was mentioned at the time there was a son was living on St Helena with his wife and daughters. 
There were actually quite a few Balcombe children baptized at Rottingdean with four couples, Edward and Margaret, Stephen and Mary, John and Mary and Robert and Martha, all producing children from 1769-1789.
However the most likely candidate for ‘our’ William’s parents are Stephen Balcombe and Mary Vandyke. They had married in May 1777 but he had died before 1788 as by then she had married Charles Terry also at Rottingdean on 25 December 1788. Her Will confirms that William Tompsitt Balcombe was her son:
This is the last Will and Testament of me Mary Terry of Winchelsea …….. I give and bequeath the same unto my son William Tompsitt Balcombe of the Island of Saint Helena therefore to and for his own absolute use and benefit I so will it ……..Proved at London 16th June 1818
William Balcombe’s brother Stephen also wrote an extensive Will naming Mary Terry as his mother and George van Dyke as his grandfather, so the van Dyke connection seems to be correct.
William’s daughter Betsy Abel lived in London in 1867 and wrote letters to her sister-in-law Emma [née Reid] wife of her youngest brother Alexander Beatson Balcombe. In one letter Betsy asked about her nephews and nieces
How are all the children getting on and what are their especial tastes, are any of the girls musical and have they voices or do any take after their ancestor the great Vandyke and shew talent for drawing? 
It is not likely that Sir Anthony van Dyck the Flemish Baroque artist was an ancestor of Balcombe. He lived from 1599 to 1641 and both his mistress Margaret Lemon and his wife Mary Ruthven had daughters, not sons.  However there were many people of Dutch extraction living in Britain at the time and what Betsy’s letter does suggest is that she knew her grandmother had the surname Vandyke. This is another clue to ‘our’ William being the son of Stephen Balcombe and Mary Vandyke.
(However as an interesting sideline, artistic talent is something found through several Balcombe generations. William’s son Thomas Tyrwhitt was a well known respected Colonial artist in NSW and his grand-daughter Vera Gaden, her son William and her great-grand-daughter Anwen Keeling are all recognised artists.)
So from the evidence of the birth record, the HEIC documents, Mary Terry’s Will, Stephen Balcombe’s Will and Betsy’s letter we can confidently say that William Balcombe had been born to Stephen Balcombe and his wife Mary Vandyke in the village of Rottingdean on Christmas Day in 1777.
So what happened to his father Stephen who had died before 1788? Could he have been lost at sea? There were certainly plenty of deaths by drowning reported in the local Hampshire Chronicle newspaper, for example
On Tuesday as a boat belonging to the Belliquex man of war was going to Spithead, she was overset by a sudden gust of wind when four men and five women were unfortunately drowned. 
No sailors’ names were given nor were any mentioned in the report of the loss of a fixed-oared cutter from HMS Southampton which was travelling from ship to shore and overturned in the strong wind and heavy seas with the loss of several lives.
Bad weather in the English Channel was not unknown. In 1791 the newspaper reported that the ship Lark which frequently travelled from Guernsey to Southampton in fourteen hours,
was three weeks from that Island before she arrived here having been in one of the hardest gales the master ever remembers.
The sea was so high it was thought the vessel would go down and one sailor did lose his life when he was swept overboard.  Another ship lost close to Rottingdean was the Richard and Anne sailing from Weymouth to London, laden with Portland Stone, Malt, Strong Beer, Twine and Brandy. She set sail on 11th February 1763 and on the night of the 16th was driven ashore in high seas, striking land a quarter of a mile to the west of Rottingdean Gap:
the next morning bulged where all the Beer and Brandy and 141 Tubs of Butter and two Pecks of Twine were saved; and the beer is locked up in a barn in Rottingdean by the Officers of his Majesty’s Customs.
The newspaper reported that the ship was beaten to pieces but the anchors, cables, sails, boom, boltsprit and grast were saved. The only mention of any crew, saved or otherwise, was the ship’s “late” Master Matthew Langrish.
So this suggests that if Balcombe senior was an ordinary sailor lost at sea he was not likely to be named if his loss was reported in the newspapers.
Can we glean any more about the Balcombe family from a history of the village?
Rottingdean is situated on the coast of the English Channel and is a few miles to the east of Brighton. The sea often took its victims to Rottingdean’s shores… one doctor bathing in Brighton was drowned and the sea carried him to Rottingdean.  Two soldiers of the Lanarkshire Fensibles quartered at Rottingdean “were amusing themselves on the rocks between that place and Brighton, the tide unexpectedly flowed upon them and cut off their retreat when one of them was unfortunately drowned.” 
Rottingdean was a small place, in 1724 the village was home to just 28 families, including ‘one Quaker, two Presbyterians‘ but ‘no Papists’. One hundred years later Rottingdean had grown to between ninety and one hundred houses. Its old White Horse was a noted coaching house with stabling for 40 post-horses used on the old Brighton to Dover road. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was known as a village of smugglers, with half the population being concerned with the trade. Even Dr. Thomas Hooker, the local Vicar from 1792-1838, was involved, acting as look-out with his swift grey mare. However smuggling was not without its risks.
A smuggling boat laden with prohibited goods which she had just before taken in from a cutter … overset … as she was coming on shore with her cargo, four men were on board at the time one of whom drowned, the other three saved their lives but lost the whole of their cargo. 
There are deep caves in the cliffs, and a honeycomb of tunnels under the early houses of the village High Street. No doubt the village lads including the young Balcombes would have explored those many subterranean passages.
Many an illicit cargo of wine and French lace must have been smuggled ashore… via.. the tunnels under the High Street and the secret passages which led from the cellars of most of the old houses surrounding the village Green.
The “Riding Officers” were always on the lookout for illicit goods. One day they found concealed in a village dunghill a chest
containing 500 new hangers without hilts. Various conjectures are formed respecting the use they were designed for.
Life could be dangerous for these men of law, not only were they likely to come into conflict with armed smugglers, they worked in all weathers and in the dark of night. One Riding Officer of Rottingdean, Mr. G Lindsay:
being on horseback and finding the road very slippery he is supposed to have dismounted and walked over the cliff and by the violence of the fall fractured his skull.
The map of the village is taken from Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean.
As well as incoming cargo, it was also reported that at times vast quantities of wool were smuggled out of England and landed at Calais, the ringleader being a certain Thomas Green, a fearless leader with highly trained men in his pay, men prepared to take on the local militia. One can only wonder if he had any connection to the family of Jane Green who became wife of William Balcombe. 
Another famous Rottingdean smuggler was the village butcher Captain Dunk who lived at ‘Whipping Post House‘ near the village pond and next door to the Plough Inn, a house with cellars where contraband goods were hidden with tunnels leading to the beach. In 1814 a diary observing life in the village noted
The village is also noted along the coast for bringing things on shore without paying the revenue duties, for which innocent and beneficial practise (sad to relate) Captain Dunk the Butcher paid £500 and ten of his worthy friends were lodged in Hawsham Jaol or in their elegant language were sent off for a few months to colledge to improve their manners.
So in the past smuggling was the chief support of the inhabitants of Rottingdean, and today the village still enjoys its smuggling history.
In future years it became home to Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones, Rudyard Kipling’s uncle, who designed the stained glass windows of St Margaret’s church in the village, and who would have known another of our family relatives, the Pre-Raphaelite artist Holman Hunt.
Rudyard Kipling himself lived in Rottingdean from 1897 to 1902. His delightful poem A Smuggler’s Song evokes vivid images of life in a smuggling village.
A Smuggler’s Song by Rudyard Kipling
If you wake at midnight, and hear a horse’s feet,
Don’t go drawing back the blind, or looking in the street,
Them that asks no questions they isn’t told a lie.
Watch the wall, my darling, while the Gentlemen go by!
Five-and-twenty ponies, trotting through the dark—
With brandy for the Parson and ‘baccy for the Clerk.
Laces for a lady and letters for a spy,
And watch the wall, my darling, while the Gentlemen go by!
Running round the woodlump if you chance to find
Little barrels, roped and tarred, all full of brandy-wine;
Don’t you shout to come and look, nor use ’em for your play;
Put the brushwood back again,—and they’ll be gone next day!
If you see the stable-door setting open wide;
If you see a tired horse lying down inside;
If your mother mends a coat cut about and tore;
If the lining’s wet and warm—don’t you ask no more!
If you meet King George’s men, dressed in blue and red,
You be careful what you say, and mindful what is said.
If they call you “pretty maid”, and chuck you ‘neath the chin,
Don’t you tell where no one is, nor yet where no one’s been!
Knocks and footsteps round the house—whistles after dark—
You’ve no call for running out until the house-dogs bark.
Trusty’s here, and Pincher’s here, and see how dumb they lie—
They don’t fret to follow when the Gentlemen go by!
If you do as you’ve been told, likely there’s a chance
You’ll be give a dainty doll, all the way from France,
With a cap of Valenciennes, and a velvet hood—
A present from the Gentlemen, along o’ being good!
Five-and-twenty ponies, trotting through the dark—
Brandy for the Parson, ‘baccy for the Clerk.
Them that asks no questions isn’t told a lie—
So watch the wall, my darling, while the Gentlemen go by! 
In 1758 James Blunden surrendered ‘a cottage and appurtenances’ near Whipping Post Pond to John Balcomb [sic], butcher of Rottingdean. In 1785 he in turn surrendered the property and one garden to his son Stephen (‘our’ William’s father). When he died (in 1788 or before) the cottage passed to his widow Mary as her ‘Widow’s Bench’ and then she and her new husband, Charles Terry of Rottingdean, tailor, lived there until 1807 when they ‘surrender absolutely’ the property to Joseph Molineux.  Captain Dunk’s home, Whipping Post Cottage was a former butcher’s shop and slaughterhouse. So was Captain Dunk’s house and the Balcomb/e house one and the same?
Laurian d’Harcourt, author of Rottingdean the Village, wrote that Mary’s first husband
Stephen Balcombe had commanded a privateer in the Channel during the wars against the French Revolutionary Government and was drowned at sea. Since he was killed on active service his three sons were made wards of the Crown and educated by the king who found places for them in the Army or Navy.
According to d’Harcourt, Mary had been born a Vandyke and was a great grand-daughter of the painter. She repeated the story that William was the illegitimate son of George, Prince of Wales, and said one of the younger sons became a captain in the 57th Foot and the other retired as Inspector General of yeomanry and was for many years an equerry to George IV. Unfortunately the book is not referenced and one can only assume the unconfirmed story of Dame Mabel Brookes, written in 1960, over forty years earlier, was perpetuated again.
Henry Blyth reported that generally life in Rottingdean was quiet and serene but it had its excitements when
The scene is sometimes diversified by the Prince and his party passing through the village on their way to Blatchington.
The village of East Blatchington was a front line coastal defence during the Napoleonic war, and had a military barracks built in 1794. The Blatchington area was also the site of a large ‘tide mill’ built in 1761….. a reservoir was constructed to fill with water when the tide came in, when the tide turned the sluice gate closed and the water was then available to drive the mill wheel. A second mill was built at nearby Bishopstone by William Catt in 1780 on land leased from Lord Sheffield in the area between the sea and land owned by his cousin. This mill grew into the largest water-mill in Sussex, growing from five pairs of grinding stones to sixteen pairs. This area of Sussex is still known as Tidemills. 
So if the Prince wanted to see the innovative tide mills or visit the barracks during his visits to Brighton, he would have had to travel through Rottingdean on his way east. Blyth’s comment confirmed that Prince George did pass through the village, so he could have seen the Balcombe boys and been moved by their poverty or personalities.
When on St Helena Balcombe and his by then former business partner William Burchell, dined together on 6 July 1808. In his journal Burchell wrote
Balcombe dined with me, he mentioned that it had been said to Mr. Tyrwhitt that it was reported that B was the son of the Prince of Wales, and that Mr. T desired B to contradict such a report. By my letters I learn he is the son of a poor fisherman of Brighton who drowned and the Prince, hearing of the distressed state of the widow desired Tyrwhitt to take care of the two children who were then very young. But it seems B encouraged this report, if not set it on foot. 
From Balcombe’s point of view this connection with a well respected figure like Tyrwhitt was very useful, for Sir Thomas was considered one of the Gentry, an important social distinction of the time where such gentlemen followed a code of honour of behaviour, were Anglicans, they dressed well and had a high level of annual income, putting them in the top levels in the ‘Social Tables’ of the time. The duel was an accepted way of settling a dispute. For example two Midshipmen met to duel on Southsea Common, one was wounded in the shoulder and both then retired from the field, honour restored! 
The Monarchy, Peers, Bishops, Gentry and Eminent Merchants, all with an annual income above £800 made up the top 1% of the population. Gentlemen, teachers, eminent clergy, lawyers made up the next 5% of the population with at least £200 income. No doubt William Balcombe was keen to rise above the lower 50% and move upwards socially, he would seize every opportunity, rumours of Royal parentage were not to be denied even if they were not openly cultivated.
So we may have solved the puzzle and identified William’s parents as Stephen Balcombe and Mary Vandyke. The question of why he was so befriended by Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt may simply be that, when their lives crossed paths, even if initially under orders from the Prince Regent, the young Balcombe boys became the family that Sir Thomas, a bachelor, never had.
© Caroline Gaden
 Christopher Hibbert, George IV, Prince of Wales, Readers Union, 1973, p.10.
 Christopher Hibbert, George IV, Prince of Wales, Readers Union, 1973, p.14.
 Priestley, JB, The Prince of pleasure and his Regency 1811-20 1969, Heinemann, p. 21.
 Charles Carlton, Royal Mistresses, 1990, Routledge.
 Anthony J Camp, author of Royal Mistresses and Bastards, personal communication.
 Letter to author from Royal Collection Trust, Windsor Castle dated 10 August 2005, signed Julie Snelling, Assistant Archivist.
 Personal communication from descendant EB MacDougal, and story recounted by N Green as told to G Paterson.
 Susanna de Vries, Royal Mistresses of the House of Hanover-Windsor, Pirgos Press, pp 33, 89.
 Hampshire Chronicle, 16 Sept 1797.
 Dame Mabel Brookes, St Helena Story, WM Heinemann, London 1960, p. 5.
 John Raithby, The statutes relating to the Admiralty, Navy, shipping and navigation of the United Kingdom from 9 Hen III to 3 Geo IV (1823) p. 985, and Sir Thomas Edlyne Tomlins, Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 6.
 NSW Treasurer had friends in high places, Sunday Telegraph, Sunday March 20, 1994, p. 118.
 The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History at <http://www.plymouthdata.info/Who%20Was%20Who-Tyrwhitt%20Thomas%201762%201833.htm>
 R.P.T., Notices and remains of the family Tyrwhitt originally seated in Northumberland, printed 1858, corrected and reprinted 1862, never published, Google books, pp. 63-66.
 Correspondence between Balcombe and Tyrwhitt re the supply of Napoleon’s table Letter to Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt from William Balcombe dated 16 October 1815 available from the James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
 Letter from Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt to Sir Hudson Lowe, dated 8 December 1815, available from the James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
 Mabel Brookes, St Helena story, p. 5.
 J Landon Taylor, Photocopy of Personal communication from American visitors in 1965 to Dame Mabel Brookes, Mr and Mrs JL Taylor, 916 Via Nogales Palds Verdes Estate, California 90275.
 National archives catalogue, Prob 11/1608.
IGI Family Search <www.familysearch.org>
IGI Family Search <www.familysearch.org>, Batch Nos. C057861 and M057862.
 IGI Family Search <www.familysearch.org>, Batch No.C070631.
 Information from the Register of births, Rottingdean Church.
 Information via personal letter to author from the Registrar of BDMs at Marylebone Church.
 Universal Trade Directory, 1794.
 JG Bishop, History of Brighton, 1805.
 IGI Family Search <www.familysearch.org>, Batch Nos. C057861 and M057862.
 IGI Family Search <www.familysearch.org>, Batch No. MO57862.
 Will of Stephen Balcombe, from the National Archives of the UK, Date: 7 Sept 1818, Prob11/1608/71
 Letter owned by Richard a’Becket [a’B8/6], transcribed by A Whitehead, forwarded by K Murley.
 Thomas Balcombe: <http://daao.library.unsw.edu.au/bio/thomas-tyrwhitt-balcombe/version/21/?p=2>;
Vera Balcombe/Gaden: <http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/37435971?q=gaden&c=book>,
Bill Gaden: Caroline Gaden, Pounding Along to Singapore, Brisbane, Queensland, 2012, p. 299.
Anwen Keeling: < http://www.anwenkeeling.com.au/index.htm>
 Hampshire Chronicle, 13 November 1780.
 Hampshire Chronicle, 26 August 1793.
 Hampshire Chronicle, 3 January 1791.
 Oxford Journal, 26 February 1763.
 Hampshire Chronicle, 31 July 1775.
 Reading Mercury and Oxford Gazette, 2 October 1797.
 Laurian d’Harcourt, Rottingdean the Village, DD publishing, 2001, p. 67.
 Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no dates p 28 and village images are taken from this book
 Hampshire Chronicle, 19 November 1787.
 Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no dates p. 19 and map taken from this book.
 Hampshire Chronicle, 30 November 1778.
 Reading Mercury, 18 February 1879.
 Picture taken from D’Harcourt, Rottingdean the Village, p.96.
 Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no date, p.21.
 Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no date, p.22.
Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no date, p. 54.
 <http://www.kiplingsociety.co.uk/poems_smuggler.htm> and map taken from Henry Blyth, inside back cover
 Court Rolls of Rottingdean Manor. (Information Courtesy David MacDougall)
 Henry Blyth, Smuggler’s Village, the story of Rottingdean HE Blyth, Brighton, no date, p. 40.
 Laurian d’Harcourt, Rottingdean the Village, DD publishing, 2001, pp 98-99.
 Henry Blyth, Smugglers’ Village, the story of Rottingdean, Brighton, HE Blyth Ltd, no dates p.22
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide_mill and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide_Mills,_East_Sussex and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Blatchington and The AA Big Road Atlas Britain, p. 12-13
 Burchell’s journal, scan from Hope Library, University of Oxford,
 Hampshire Chronicle, 21 October 1793 and Douglas Hay and Nicholas Rogers, Eighteenth Century English Society, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp.18-26.
 Douglas Hay and Nicholas Rogers, Eighteenth Century English Society, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp.18-26.